These authors contributed equally to this paper.
Y-chromosome O3 Haplogroup Diversity in Sino-Tibetan Populations Reveals Two Migration Routes into the Eastern Himalayas
Version of Record online: 23 NOV 2011
© 2011 The Authors Annals of Human Genetics © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/University College London
Annals of Human Genetics
Volume 76, Issue 1, pages 92–99, January 2012
How to Cite
Kang, L., Lu, Y., Wang, C., Hu, K., Chen, F., Liu, K., Li, S., Jin, L., Li, H. and The Genographic Consortium (2012), Y-chromosome O3 Haplogroup Diversity in Sino-Tibetan Populations Reveals Two Migration Routes into the Eastern Himalayas. Annals of Human Genetics, 76: 92–99. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-1809.2011.00690.x
- Issue online: 19 DEC 2011
- Version of Record online: 23 NOV 2011
- Received: 4 August 2011, Accepted: 25 October 2011
- East Asian;
- population genetics;
- human migration;
- Y chromosome
The eastern Himalayas are located near the southern entrance through which early modern humans expanded into East Asia. The genetic structure in this region is therefore of great importance in the study of East Asian origins. However, few genetic studies have been performed on the Sino-Tibetan populations (Luoba and Deng) in this region. Here, we analyzed the Y-chromosome diversity of the two populations. The Luoba possessed haplogroups D, N, O, J, Q, and R, indicating gene flow from Tibetans, as well as the western and northern Eurasians. The Deng exhibited haplogroups O, D, N, and C, similar to most Sino-Tibetan populations in the east. Short tandem repeat (STR) diversity within the dominant haplogroup O3 in Sino-Tibetan populations showed that the Luoba are genetically close to Tibetans and the Deng are close to the Qiang. The Qiang had the greatest diversity of Sino-Tibetan populations, supporting the view of this population being the oldest in the family. The lowest diversity occurred in the eastern Himalayas, suggesting that this area was an endpoint for the expansion of Sino-Tibetan people. Thus, we have shown that populations with haplogroup O3 moved into the eastern Himalayas through at least two routes.