• FMR1;
  • SNPs;
  • Basque valleys


Fragile X Syndrome (FXS, MIM 309550) is mainly due to the expansion of a CGG trinucleotide repeat sequence, found in the 5′ untranslated region of the FMR1 gene. Some studies suggest that stable markers, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the study of populations with genetic identity, could provide a distinct advance to investigate the origin of CGG repeat instability. In this study, seven SNPs (WEX28 rs17312728:G>T, WEX70 rs45631657:C>T, WEX1 rs10521868:A>C, ATL1 rs4949:A>G, FMRb rs25707:A>G, WEX17 rs12010481:C>T and WEX10 ss71651741:C>T) have been analyzed in two Basque valleys (Markina and Arratia). We examined the association between these SNPs and the CGG repeat size, the AGG interruption pattern and two microsatellite markers (FRAXAC1 and DXS548). The results suggest that in both valleys WEX28-T, WEX70-C, WEX1-C, ATL1-G, and WEX10-C are preferably associated with cis-acting sequences directly influencing instability. But comparison of the two valleys reveals also important differences with respect to: (1) frequency and structure of “susceptible” alleles and (2) association between “susceptible” alleles and STR and SNP haplotypes. These results may indicate that, in Arratia, SNP status does not identify a pool of susceptible alleles, as it does in Markina. In Arratia valley, the SNP haplotype association reveals also a potential new “protective” factor.