• Association studies;
  • extreme sampling;
  • genetic models;
  • genotype relative risks;
  • replication


Using extreme phenotypes for association studies can improve statistical power . We study the impact of using samples with extremely high or low traits on the alternative model space, the genotype relative risks, and the genetic models in association studies. We prove the following results: when the risk allele causes high-trait values, the more extreme the high traits, the larger the genotype relative risks, which is not always true for using extreme low traits; we also prove that a genetic model theoretically changes with more extreme trait except for the recessive or dominant models. Practically, however, the impact of deviations from the true genetic model at a functional locus due to selective sampling is virtually negligible. The implications of our findings are discussed. Numerical values are reported for illustrations.