SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Aiello L, Dean C (1990) An Introduction to Human Evolutionary Anatomy. London: Academic Press.
  • Alexander RMcN, Vernon A (1975) The dimensions of the knee and ankle muscles and the forces they exert. J. Hum. Mov. Stud. 1, 115123.
  • Alexander RMcN, Maloiy GMO, Ker RF, Jayes AS, Warui CN (1982) The role of tendon elasticity in the locomotion of the camel (Camelus dromedarius). J. Zool. 198, 293313.
  • Alexander RMcN (1991) Elastic mechanisms in primate locomotion. Z. Morph. Anthropol. 78, 315320.
  • Alexander RMcN (1992) Exploring Biomechanics: Animals in Motion. New York: Scientific American Library.
  • Andrew P, Groves CP (1976) Gibbons and brachiation. In Gibbon and Siamang: a Series of Volumes on the Lesser Apes, Vol. 4: Suspensory Behavior, Locomotion, and Other Behaviors of Captive Gibbons: Cognition (ed. RumbaughDM), pp. 167218. Basel: Karger.
  • Biewener AA (1998) Muscle-tendon stresses and elastic energy storage during locomotion in the horse. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B Biochem. Mol. Biol. 120, 7387.
  • Bisschoff Th, LW (1870) Beiträge zur Anatomie des Hylobates leuciscus und zu einer vergleichende Anatomie der Muskeln der Affen und des Menschen. Abd. D. Math–Phys. Kl. D. Königl. Bayer. Akad. D. Wiss. 10, 199297.
  • Carpenter CR (1964) A field study in Siam of the behavior and social relations of the gibbon (Hylobates lar). In Naturalistic Behavior of Nonhuman Primates (ed. CarpenterCR), pp. 145271. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press.
  • Chang Y-H, Bertram JEA, Lee DV (2000) External forces and torques generated by the brachiating white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar). Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 113, 201216.
  • David RD, Delagoutte JP, Renard MM (1989) Anatomical study of the sesamoid bones of the first metatarsal. J. Am. Podiat. Med. Assn. 79, 536544.
  • Deloison Y (1993) Etude des Restes Fossils des Pieds des Premiers Hominids: Australopithecus et Homo Habilis. Essai d’interpretation de Leur Mode de Locomotion. PhD thesis, Université Réné Descartes, Paris.
  • Doran DM (1993) Comparative locomotor behavior of chimpanzees and bonobos: the influence of morphology on locomotion. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 91, 8398.
  • Doran DM, Hunt KD (1994) Comparative locomotor behavior of chimpanzees and bonobos: species and habitat differences. In Chimpanzee Cultures (eds WranghamRW, McGrewWC, De WaalFBM, et al.), pp. 93108. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Eliot DJ, Jungers WL (2000) Fifth metatarsal morphology does not predict presence or absence of fibularis tertius muscle in hominids. J. Hum. Evol. 38, 333342.
  • Ellefson JO (1967) A natural history of gibbons in the Malay Peninsula. PhD thesis, University of California, Berkeley.
  • Fleagle JG (1976) Locomotion and posture of the Malayan siamang and implications for hominid evolution. Folia Primatol. 26, 245269.
  • Gibbs S, Collard M, Wood B (2000) Soft-tissue characters in higher primate phylogenetics. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 1113011132.
  • Gibbs S, Collard M, Wood B (2002) Soft-tissue anatomy of the extant hominoids: a review and phylogenetic analysis. J. Anat. 200, 349.
  • Gittins PS (1983) Use of forest canopy by the agile gibbon. Folia Primatol. 40, 134144.
  • Goodman M, Bailey WJ, Hayasaka K, Stanhope MJ, Slighton J, Czelusniak J (1994) Molecular evidence on primate phylogeny from DNA sequences. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 94, 324.
  • Grand TI (1967) The functional anatomy of the ankle and foot of the slow loris (Nycticebus coucang). Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 26, 207218.
  • Gray H (1918) Anatomy of the Human Body (ed. Lewis, WH). Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.
  • Groves CP (1972) Systematics and phylogeny of gibbons. In Gibbon and Siamang: a Series of Volumes on the Lesser Apes, Vol. 1 (ed. RumbaughDM), pp. 189. Basel: Karger.
  • Hof AL, Van Zandwijk JP, Bobbert MF (2002) Mechanics of human triceps surae muscle in walking, running and jumping. Acta Physiol. Scand. 174, 1730.
  • Jacob HAC (2001) Forces acting in the forefoot during normal gait – an estimate. Clin. Biomech. 16, 783792.
  • Jouffroy FK (1962) La musculature des membres chez les lemuriens de Madagascar, étude descriptive et comparative. Mammalia 26, 1386.
  • Jungers WL, Stern JT (1976) Kinesiological aspects of brachiation in lar gibbons. In Gibbon and Siamang: a Series of Volumes on the Lesser Apes, Vol. 4: Suspensory Behavior, Locomotion, and Other Behaviors of Captive Gibbons; Cognition (ed. RumbaughDM), pp. 119135. Basel: Karger.
  • Jungers WL, Meldrum DJ, Stern JT (1993) The functional and evolutionary significance of the human peroneus tertius muscle. J. Hum. Evol. 25, 377386.
  • Kano T (1992) The Last Ape. Pygmy Chimpanzee Behavior and Ecology. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
  • Ker RF, Alexander RMcN, Bennett MB (1988) Why are mammalian tendons so thick? J. Zool., Lond. 216, 309324.
  • Kohlbrügge JHF (1890/1891) Versuch einer Anatomie des Genus Hylobates. In Zoologische Ergebnisse Einer Reise in Niederländisch Ost-Indien (ed. WeberM), pp. 211354. Leiden: Verlag von EJ Brill.
  • Langdon JH (1990) Variations in cruropedal musculature. Int. J. Primatol. 11, 575606.
  • Ledoux WR, Hirsch BE, Church T, Caunin M (2001) Pennation angles of the intrinsic muscles of the foot. J. Biomech. 34, 339403.
  • Lessertisseur J, Jouffroy FK (1973) Tendances locomotrices des primates traduites par les proportions du pied. Folia Primatol. 20, 125160.
  • Lewis OJ (1964) The tibialis posterior tendon in the primate foot. J. Anat. 98, 209218.
  • Lewis OJ (1989) Functional Morphology of the Evolving Hand and Foot. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Loth E (1913) Etude anthropologique sur l’aponeurose plantaire. Bull. Mem. Soc. Anthropol. Paris 4, 601609.
  • Macalister A (1875) Observations on muscular anomalies in the human anatomy. Third series with a catalogue of the principal muscular variations hitherto published. Trans. Roy. Irish Acad. Sci. 25, 1130.
  • Mann RA, Inman VT (1964) Phasic activity of intrinsic muscles of the foot. J. Bone Joint Surg. 46A, 469481.
  • Mendez J, Keys A (1960) Density and composition of mammalian muscle. Metabolism 9, 184188.
  • Miller RA (1952) The musculature of Pan paniscus. Am. J. Anat. 91, 183232.
  • Morton DJ (1924) Evolution of the human foot II. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. VII, 152.
  • Morton DJ (1935) The Human Foot, its Evolution, Physiology and Functional Disorders. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Nickel R, Schummer A, Seiferle E (1986) The Anatomy of the Domestic Animals, Vol. 1: the Locomotor System of the Domestic Mammals. Berlin: Parey.
  • Otis JC, Gage T (2001) Function of the posterior tibial tendon muscle. Foot Ankle Clin. 6, 114.
  • Payne RC (2001) Musculoskeletal adaptations for climbing in hominoids and their role as exaptations for the acquisition of bipedalism. PhD thesis, University of Liverpool.
  • Perlman P (1994) First metatarsal sesamoid pain. Australian Podiatrist March, 1823.
  • Pfitzner W (1896) Beiträge zur Kentnntniss des menschlichen Extremitätenskelets. VII. Die Variationen im Aufbau des Fussskelets. Morph. Arb. 6, 245527.
  • Prejzner-Morawska P, Urbanowicz M (1981) Morphology of some of the lower limb muscles in primates. In Primate Evolutionary Biology (eds ChlarelliAB, CorrucciniRS), pp. 6067. Berlin: Springer Verlag.
  • Reynolds TR (1985) Stresses on the limbs of quadrupedal primates. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 67, 351362.
  • Sarin VK, Erickson GM, Giori NJ, Bergman AG, Carter DR (1999) Coincident development of sesamoid bones and clues to their evolution. Anat. Rec. (New Anat.) 257, 174180.
  • Sarmiento EE (1983) The significance of the heel process in anthropoids. Int. J. Primatol. 4, 127138.
  • Satie JP, Alfred JRB (2002) Locomotion and posture in Hoolock gibbon. Ann. For. 10, 298306.
  • Schmitt D, Larson SG (1995) Heel contact as a function of substrate type and speed in primates. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 96, 3950.
  • Schmitt D (1999) Compliant walking in primates. J. Zool. 247, 149160.
  • Schultz AH (1963) Relations between the lengths of the main parts of the foot skeleton in primates. Folia Primatol. 1, 150171.
  • Schultz AH (1973) The skeleton of the Hylobatidae and other observations on their morphology. In Gibbon and Siamang: a Series of Volumes on the Lesser Apes, Vol. 2: Anatomy, Dentition, Taxonomy, Molecular Evolution, and Behavior (ed. RumbaughDM), pp. 154. Basel: Karger.
  • Shapiro LJ, Jungers WL (1988) Back muscle function during bipedal walking in chimpanzee and gibbon: Implications for the evolution of human locomotion. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 77, 201212.
  • Shapiro LJ, Jungers WL (1994) Electromyography of back muscles during quadrupedal and bipedal walking in primates. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 93, 491504.
  • Sigmon BA (1974) A functional analysis of pongid hip and thigh musculature. J. Hum. Evol. 3, 164185.
  • Sigmon BA (1975) Functions and evolution of hominid hip and thigh musculature. In Primate Functional Morphology and Evolution (ed. TuttleRH), pp. 235252. The Hague: Mouton.
  • Sigmon BA, Farslow DL (1986) The primate hindlimb. In Comparative Primate Biology Vol. 1: Systematics, Evolution, and Anatomy (eds SwindlerDR, ErwinJ), pp. 671718. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc.
  • Sokoloff S (1972) The muscular anatomy of the chimpanzee foot. Gegenbaurs Morph. Jb. 1, 86125.
  • Stern JT, Susman RL (1981) Electromyography of the gluteal muscles in Hylobates, Pongo, and Pan: implications for the evolution of hominid bipedality. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 55, 153166.
  • Susman RL, Badrian NL, Badrian AJ (1980) Locomotor behavior of Pan paniscus in Zaire. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 53, 6980.
  • Susman RL, Badrian NL, Thompson-Handler L (1985) Positional behavior and feeding ecology of the pygmy chimpanzee (Pan paniscus): first year results of the Lomako Forest Pygmy Chimpanzee Project. Natl Geographic Res. 20, 725739.
  • Swindler DR, Wood CD (1973) An Atlas of Primate Gross Anatomy, Baboon, Chimpanzee, and Man. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
  • Thorpe SKS, Crompton RH, Günther MM, Ker RF, Alexander RMcN (1999) Dimensions and moment arms of the hind- and forelimb muscles of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 110, 179199.
  • Tuttle RH (1970) Postural, propulsive, and prehensile capabilities in the cheiridia of chimpanzees and other great apes. Chimpanzee 2, 167253.
  • Tuttle RH (1972) Functional and evolutionary biology of hylobatid hands and feet. In Gibbon and Siamang: a Series of Volumes on the Lesser Apes, Vol. 1 (ed. RumbaughDM), pp. 136206. Basel: Karger.
  • Tuttle RH, Basmajian JV, Ishida H (1978) Electromyography of pongid gluteal muscles and hominid evolution. In Recent Advances in Primatology: Evolution, Vol. 3 (eds ChiversDJ, JoyseyKA), pp. 463468. London: Academic Press.
  • Vereecke E, D’Août K, De Clercq D, Van Elsacker L, Aerts P (2003) Dynamic plantar pressure distribution during terrestrial walking of bonobos (Pan paniscus). Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 120, 373383.
  • Vereecke E, D’Août K, De Clercq D, Van Elsacker L, Aerts P (2005) Functional analysis of the gibbon foot during terrestrial bipedal walking: plantar pressure distributions and 3D ground reaction forces. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol in press.
  • Wickiewicz TL, Roy RR, Powel PL, Edgerton VR (1983) Muscle architecture of the human lower limb. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 179, 275283 .
  • Wilder BG (1863) Contributions to the comparative myology of the chimpanzee. Journal of the British Society for Natural History 352384.