• amygdala;
  • anurans;
  • development;
  • hodology;
  • homology;
  • neurochemistry;
  • pallium;
  • subpallium;
  • tetrapods.


Numerous studies over the last few years have demonstrated that the amygdaloid complex in amniotes shares basic developmental, hodological and neurochemical features. Furthermore, homologous territories of all the main amygdaloid subdivisions have been recognized among amniotes, primarily highlighted by the common expression patterns for numerous developmental genes. Thus, derivatives from the lateral pallium, ventral pallium and subpallium constitute the fundamental parts of the amygdaloid complex. With the development of new technical approaches, study of the precise neuroanatomy of the telencephalon of the anuran amphibians (anamniotes) has been possible. Current embryological, hodological and immunohistochemical evidence strongly suggests that most of the structures present in amniotes are recognizable in these anamniotes. These investigations have yielded enough results to support the notion that the organization of the anuran amygdaloid complex includes subdivisions with their origin in ventral pallial and subpallial territories; a strong relationship with the vomeronasal and olfactory systems; abundant intra-amygdaloid connections; a main output centre involved in the autonomic system; recognizable amygdaloid fibre systems; and distinct chemoarchitecture. Therefore, the new ideas regarding the amygdaloid evolution based on the recent findings in anamniotes, and especially in anurans, strongly support the notion that basic amygdaloid structures were present at least in the brain of ancestral tetrapods organized following a basic plan shared by tetrapods.