• bonnet monkeys;
  • deprivation rearing;
  • abnormal behavior;
  • therapy

Summary A group of twelve bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) raised in partial social isolation from birth to adulthood expressed moderate-to-severe behavioral disturbance as a function of their early rearing environments. The range of these behavioral abnormalities in this species are described for die first time. In order to assess the role of the current environment on their behavior, the animals as a group were required to obtain all of their food from a foraging device presenting two levels of difficulty. The therapeutic effect of the imposed foraging task was dependent upon the individual's status in the dominance hierarchy. Low- and high-ranking animals responded positively and became more social (338% above baseline levels) and showed lower levels of specific abnormal behaviors (nearly 75% lower). Mid-ranking animals responded negatively and became less social (89% lower), while their levels of abnormal behavior dramatically increased (200% higher).