Continuity and change from early childhood to adolescence in autism


Marian Sigman, Department of Psychiatry, UCLA School of Medicine, 760 Westwood Plaza, Room 68-237C, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1759, USA; Tel: (310) 825-0180; Fax: (310) 825-2682; Email:


Background:  This longitudinal study of 48 children diagnosed with autism at 2–5 years of age was designed to test the hypothesis that diagnosis would remain stable for most of the sample but that there would be improvements in symptom severity, adaptive behavior, and emotional responsiveness in adolescence.

Methods:  A sample of children with autism assessed in both early and middle childhood were observed in late adolescence with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Scale (ADOS) and their parents were administered the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale.

Results:  All but 2 adolescents (46 of 48) met lifetime criteria for autism according to the ADI-R, and all but 4 adolescents (40 of 44) met criteria for autism spectrum disorder on the ADOS. In contrast to the continuity in diagnosis, parents described improvements in social interactions, repetitive/stereotyped behaviors, adaptive behaviors, and emotional responsiveness to others’ distress in adolescence compared to middle childhood. High-functioning adolescents with autism showed more improvement in these domains than low-functioning adolescents with autism. The extent to which the adolescents were observed to be socially engaged with their peers in school in middle childhood predicted adaptive behavior skills even when intelligence level was statistically constrained.

Conclusions:  The developmental trajectory of children with autism appears to show both continuity and change. In this sample, most individuals continued to be diagnosed in the autism spectrum but parents reported improvements in adolescence. The results suggest that social involvement with peers improves adaptive behavior skills, and this argues for focusing intervention programs in this area. In addition, it is clear that high-functioning adolescents improve more than low-functioning individuals not only in cognitive abilities but also in social interaction skills. Thus, any early intervention that impacts the cognitive abilities of young children with autism is likely to have a parallel influence on their social skills as they mature into late adolescence and early adulthood.