Literacy difficulties and psychiatric disorders: evidence for comorbidity
Article first published online: 1 OCT 2004
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
Volume 46, Issue 5, pages 524–532, May 2005
How to Cite
Carroll, J. M., Maughan, B., Goodman, R. and Meltzer, H. (2005), Literacy difficulties and psychiatric disorders: evidence for comorbidity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46: 524–532. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00366.x
- Issue published online: 21 APR 2005
- Article first published online: 1 OCT 2004
- Manuscript accepted 26 April 2004
- reading difficulties;
- conduct disorder;
Background: Literacy difficulties show high levels of comorbidity with both disruptive and emotional disorders, but questions remain over the nature and specificity of these links.
Method: Relationships between specific literacy difficulties and psychiatric disorder were investigated in a large-scale national sample of children aged 9 to 15 years.
Results: Specific literacy difficulties were more common in children from lower socio-economic backgrounds, and were significantly associated with increased risks of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (especially inattentive symptomatology), Conduct Disorder and anxiety disorders in both girls and boys, and with self-reports of depressed mood in boys. Associations between literacy difficulties and diagnoses of both Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) were mediated by inattentiveness, as were links with low mood. Links between specific literacy difficulties and anxiety were of a different nature, suggestive of a direct impact of literacy problems on risk for anxiety disorders.
Conclusions: Literacy difficulties are significantly associated with externalising disorders via inattention, but may constitute a more immediate risk factor for naturally anxious children to develop clinically significant levels of anxiety.