See Sinclair (1999; http://web.syr.edu/∼jisincla/person_first.htm) to appreciate our respectful use of the term ‘autistic’ rather than ‘person with autism.’
Infant and toddler oral- and manual-motor skills predict later speech fluency in autism
Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2007
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
Volume 49, Issue 1, pages 43–50, January 2008
How to Cite
Gernsbacher, M. A., Sauer, E. A., Geye, H. M., Schweigert, E. K. and Hill Goldsmith, H. (2008), Infant and toddler oral- and manual-motor skills predict later speech fluency in autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49: 43–50. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01820.x
Conflict of interest statement: No conflicts declared.
- Issue online: 2 NOV 2007
- Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2007
- Manuscript accepted 21 June 2007
- Early motor development;
- motor skills
Background: Spoken and gestural communication proficiency varies greatly among autistic individuals. Three studies examined the role of oral- and manual-motor skill in predicting autistic children's speech development.
Methods: Study 1 investigated whether infant and toddler oral- and manual-motor skills predict middle childhood and teenage speech fluency; Study 2 verified those early infant and toddler predictions with historical home video; and Study 3 assessed the relation between autistic children's current-day oral-motor skill and their speech fluency.
Results: Infant and toddler oral-motor and manual-motor skills inter-correlated significantly, distinguished autistic children (N = 115) from typically developing children (N = 44), and distinguished autistic children whose current-day speech was minimally fluent (N = 33), moderately fluent (N = 39), and highly fluent (N = 39). These results were corroborated by analysis of historical home video (N = 32) and verified with current-day assessment (N = 40).
Conclusions: The prominent associations among early oral- and manual-motor skills and later speech fluency bear implications for understanding communication in autism. For instance, these associations challenge the common assumption (made even in diagnostic criteria) that manual modes of communication are available to autistic individuals – if simply they choose to use them. These associations also highlight a potential confound from manual-motor skills when assessing autistic cognition, receptive language, and ‘nonverbal’ social communication.