Perspectives on oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and psychopathic features


  • Conflict of interest statement: No conflicts declared.

Rolf Loeber, WPIC, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, 3811 O’Hara St., Pittsburgh PA 15213, USA; Tel: 412-383-5087; Email:


This paper presents a few perspectives on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), and early forms of psychopathy. The developmental changes and stability of each, and the interrelationship between the three conditions are reviewed, and correlates and predictors are highlighted. The paper also examines effective interventions for each of the three conditions and makes recommendations for future research.