Conflict of interest statement: Dr. Joseph Biederman receives/d research support from, is on the speaker’s bureau for, and/or has an advisory/consulting relationship with the following sources: Shire, Eli Lilly, Pfizer, McNeil, Abbott, Bristol-Myers-Squibb, New River Pharmaceuticals, Cephalon, Janssen, Neurosearch, Stanley Medical Institute, Novartis, Lilly Foundation, Prechter Foundation, Astra-Zeneca, Forest Laboratories, Glaxo-SmithKline, UCB Pharma, Inc, NIMH, NICHD, and NIDA. Dr. Stephen V. Faraone receives/d research support from, is on the speaker’s bureau for, and/or has an advisory/consulting relationship with the following sources: Eli Lilly & Company, McNeil Pediatrics, Novartis, Shire Laboratories, the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institute of Child Health and Development and the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke. Dr. Eric Mick receives/d grant support from the following pharmaceutical companies: McNeil Pediatrics, Shire LPC, Pfizer, and the National Institute of Mental Health. Mr. Carter R. Petty, Ms. Allison Clarke, Ms. Kristina Ten Haagen, and Dr. Michael C. Monuteaux have no competing interests to disclose.
Familial risk analysis of the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and psychoactive substance use disorder in female adolescents: a controlled study
Article first published online: 11 MAR 2009
© 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
Volume 50, Issue 3, pages 352–358, March 2009
How to Cite
Biederman, J., Petty, C. R., Monuteaux, M. C., Mick, E., Clarke, A., Ten Haagen, K. and Faraone, S. V. (2009), Familial risk analysis of the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and psychoactive substance use disorder in female adolescents: a controlled study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50: 352–358. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.02040.x
- Issue published online: 11 MAR 2009
- Article first published online: 11 MAR 2009
- Manuscript accepted 8 April 2008
- substance use;
- family risk
Background: A robust and bi-directional comorbidity between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and psychoactive substance use disorder (PSUD, alcohol or drug abuse, or dependence) has been consistently reported in the literature. However, this literature has been based almost exclusively on male only samples and, therefore, the findings may not generalize to females.
Methods: First-degree relatives from a large sample of pediatrically and psychiatrically referred girls with (123 probands, 403 relatives) and without ADHD (112 probands, 359 relatives) were comprehensively assessed by blind raters with structured diagnostic interviews. Familial risk analysis examined the risks in first-degree relatives for ADHD and PSUD (alcohol or drug abuse or dependence) after stratifying probands by the presence and absence of these disorders.
Results: ADHD in the proband significantly increased the risk for ADHD in relatives independently of the comorbidity with PSUD. PSUD in the proband was associated with a significantly increased risk for PSUD in relatives regardless of ADHD status. There was no evidence of co-segregation or non-random mating in the families of probands with ADHD and PSUD.
Conclusions: Patterns of familial risk analysis suggest that the association between ADHD and PSUD in adolescent females is most consistent with the hypothesis that these disorders are independently transmitted, although the hypothesis of variable expressivity could not be ruled out. These findings are consistent with previously reported patterns of familial associations between ADHD and PSUD found in adolescent males. Longer follow-up periods are needed to more fully clarify the relationship between ADHD and PSUD, as well as provide adequate power for separate analyses of alcohol and drug use.