Conflict of interest statement: No conflicts declared.
A longitudinal investigation of early reading and language skills in children with poor reading comprehension
Article first published online: 26 APR 2010
© 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
Volume 51, Issue 9, pages 1031–1039, September 2010
How to Cite
Nation, K., Cocksey, J., Taylor, J. S.H. and Bishop, D. V.M. (2010), A longitudinal investigation of early reading and language skills in children with poor reading comprehension. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51: 1031–1039. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02254.x
- Issue published online: 12 AUG 2010
- Article first published online: 26 APR 2010
- Manuscript accepted 1 March 2010
- Poor comprehenders;
- reading comprehension;
- reading development;
- language impairment
Background: Poor comprehenders have difficulty comprehending connected text, despite having age-appropriate levels of reading accuracy and fluency. We used a longitudinal design to examine earlier reading and language skills in children identified as poor comprehenders in mid-childhood.
Method: Two hundred and forty-two children began the study at age 5. Further assessments of language and reading skill were made at 5.5, 6, 7 and 8 years. At age 8, fifteen children met criteria for being a poor comprehender and were compared to 15 control children both concurrently and prospectively.
Results: Poor comprehenders showed normal reading accuracy and fluency at all ages. Reading comprehension was poor at each time point and, notably, showed minimal increases in raw score between 6 and 8 years. Phonological skills were generally normal throughout, but mild impairments in expressive and receptive language, listening comprehension and grammatical understanding were seen at all ages.
Conclusions: Children identified as poor comprehenders at 8 years showed the same reading profile throughout earlier development. Their difficulties with the non-phonological aspects of oral language were present at school entry and persisted through childhood, showing that the oral language weaknesses seen in poor comprehenders in mid-childhood are not a simple consequence of their reading comprehension impairment.