Conflicts of interest statement: Drs. Singh, Joormann, and Gotlib, Mr. Kelley, Ms. Adams, Ms. Acquaye, Ms. Howe, and Ms. Whitney report no competing interests. Dr. Chang is a consultant for GlaxoSmithKline, Eli Lilly and Company, Merck, and Bristol-Myers Squibb, and he receives research support from GlaxoSmithKline, Merck, National Institute of Mental Health, and National Alliance for Research in Schizophrenia and Depression.
Information processing in adolescents with bipolar I disorder
Article first published online: 6 MAR 2012
© 2012 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
Volume 53, Issue 9, pages 937–945, September 2012
How to Cite
Whitney, J., Joormann, J., Gotlib, I. H., Kelley, R. G., Acquaye, T., Howe, M., Chang, K. D. and Singh, M. K. (2012), Information processing in adolescents with bipolar I disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53: 937–945. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02543.x
- Issue published online: 24 AUG 2012
- Article first published online: 6 MAR 2012
- Accepted for publication: 31 January 2012
- bipolar disorder;
- memory bias;
Background: Cognitive models of bipolar I disorder (BD) may aid in identification of children who are especially vulnerable to chronic mood dysregulation. Information-processing biases related to memory and attention likely play a role in the development and persistence of BD among adolescents; however, these biases have not been extensively studied in youth with BD.
Methods: We administered the self-referent encoding task and the dot-probe task to adolescents with bipolar I disorder (BD, n = 35) and a demographically similar healthy comparison group (HC, n = 25) at baseline, and at a 1-year follow-up in a subset of this cohort (n = 22 per group).
Results: At both baseline and 1-year follow-up, there were significant interactions of group (BD, HC) and valence of stimulus (positive, negative adjective) on endorsement and recall of self-referent adjectives. HC adolescents endorsed and recalled more positive self-referent adjectives at baseline and follow-up while adolescents with BD endorsed and recalled more negative self-referent adjectives at baseline but not follow-up. Over time, depression symptomatology was associated with impaired memory for positive self-referent adjectives. There were no group differences in attentional bias at either time points.
Conclusions: Adolescents with BD exhibit bias away from endorsement and recall of positive adjectives, which remained stable over time and independent of mood state.