Interlimb co-ordination in human infant stepping


Corresponding author J. F. Yang: 2-50 Corbett Hall, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G4. Email:


  • We held infants (aged 4–12 months) over a treadmill to study how they co-ordinated the two limbs during stepping. We disturbed one limb during the stance or swing phase and recorded the responses (muscle activity and movement) from both lower limbs. Manual disturbances were applied during the stance phase by sliding the foot backward, forcing the limb into the swing phase. Disturbances were also applied in the swing phase by manually extending the hip, interfering with the forward motion of the limb. Additional disturbances were applied to see if both limbs could perform the stance and swing phase synchronously.

  • When the limb was forced to initiate the swing phase on one side, the contralateral limb either prolonged its contact with the ground or quickly established ground contact. When the forward motion of the limb was interrupted in the swing phase, the swing phase was prolonged on the disturbed side and the stance phase prolonged on the contralateral side. In most cases, one leg maintained ground contact. Moreover, it was easy to elicit bilateral, simultaneous stance phase, whereas it was difficult to elicit simultaneous swing phase. In cases where swing phase in the two limbs was initiated close in time, rhythmic alternate stepping was immediately restored in the following step.

  • We conclude that human infants can generate co-ordinated motor responses bilaterally in response to unilateral perturbations, well before the onset of independent walking.