The Breeding Beilaviour of the Common Toad, Bbufo bufo bufo Linn.


  • 1Oviposition in the toad is preceded by a stretching action of the female, which warns the male that laying is about to commence. He responds by placing his toes so that they feel the eggs emerging. This acts as a sperm-emission stimulus.
  • 2The male is discharged by the female at the conclusion of oviposition by a repetition of the oviposition warning. Since there are no eggs the chain of instinctive reactions in the male is broken, and he leaves go and swims away.
  • 3Sex recognition depends on the voice, possessed by the male but not by the female, and on the dodging, repulsive action which males show when seized.
  • 4Fighting is vigorous, and is conducted mainly by the attacking toad forcing himself between the pair from behind. Defence is1 carried out by thrusts of the feet.