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The population of Haematomyzus parasitic on the wart-hog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) is distinct from H. elephantis from the elephants and is described as a new species. A lectotype of Haematomyzus elephantis Piaget is designated. Possible explanations of the distribution of H. elephantis on the asiatic elephant (Elephas maximum) and the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) are given and the question whether Haematomyzus is likely to be a primary or secondary parasite of elephants is discussed. Four hypotheses are put forward as possible explanations of the present distribution of Haematomyzus on elephants and wart-hogs.