The early development of the hyoid of Neoceratodus is described, and its structure and topography are compared with relevant components in various urodele larvae. These include; Hynobius nebulosus, Hynobius (Salamandrella) keyserlingii, Hynobiua retardatua, Cryptobranchus japonicus, Cryptobranchus alleghaniensis, Salamandra maculosa, Ambystoma mexicanum. Necturus maculatus, Desmognathus fuscus fuscus, Desmognathus quadrimaculatus, and Plelhodon cinereua.
It is concluded that in Neoceratodus the stylohyale develops from the quadrate cartilage, and the otoquadrate cartilage derives from a pharyngohyale, which is recognized in urodeles as a post-palatine cartilage. The columella (and stilus) of the latter co-exists with a pharyngohyale, and thus may either derive from the hyoid blastema sui generic, or alternatively from an epihyale-laterohyale component of an ancestral stock common to Dipnoi and Urodela.