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The musculature of the fourth to eighth abdominal segments is typically composed of twenty pairs of segmental muscles associated with the body wall. In the first to third and ninth and tenth segments certain modifications to the basic plan occur in association with the abdominal-thoracic junction, the respiratory apparatus and the anal appendages. In some segments there are also paired muscles associated with the alimentary canal. Two large transverse muscles are present in the abdomen. There are eight abdominal ganglia, the first seven of which each give rise to three pairs of lateral nerves, the eighth to five pairs. In addition there are ten median abdominal nerves. The innervation fields of the various nerves are described. The first three pairs of lateral nerves of the last ganglion are homologous with the lateral nerves of the other abdominal ganglia; the fourth pair innervates most of segment nine; and the fifth pair innervates the remainder of segment nine, segment ten and the anal appendages. Certain of the abdominal muscles are innervated by branches from two different nerve roots. In segments six and seven the anterior point of attachment of the longitudinal stretch receptors is normally different from that in the other abdominal segments. This is discussed in the light of the types of movement which involve the abdomen and it seems apparent that these receptors are affected not only by swimming and abdominal flexion, as are the other longitudinal stretch receptors, but also by respiratory movements. Two distinct types of epidermal sensilla are present on the abdomen, spines and hairs. The former are the more numerous on the body, the latter on the anal appendages.