The anatomy of the cephalic arterial system in the fowl was studied in 24 specimens by means of latex-injected preparations and by dissection. Branches of the external carotid artery supply the extracranial regions. The vertebral arteries unite with the occipitals and have no major communications with the encephalic system. Blood can reach the brain directly from the internal carotid artery and indirectly by way of the extensive cerebral-extracranial anastomoses; especially prominent are those to the palatine and sphenomaxillary arteries from the maxillary and facial branches of the external carotid artery. A large external ophthalmic artery supplies the temporal rete and eye musculature, and an internal ophthalmic artery links the rete and the cerebral vessels. The circle of Willis is incomplete both anteriorly and posteriorly; the anterior cerebral arteries do not unite and the basilar artery is generally asymmetrical in origin. The basilar artery tapers caudally and is continued as the ventral spinal artery.