In Lake Albert Daphnia lumholtzi is found in two forms. One has a pointed anterior prolongation, or helmet, on the head. The other has a shorter rounded head, and was originally described as a separate species, D. monacha. The latter form dominates the zooplankton in the middle of the lake where planktivorous fish are rare or absent. The helmeted form becomes commoner near the margins of the lake and reaches its greatest abundance in Ndaiga Lagoon, where planktivorous fish are common. The possession of a helmet is associated with a reduction in the size of the carapace compared to the round headed form. The carapace with its contained eggs is the most conspicuous part of a cladoceran, so that the helmeted forms are at an advantage in the presence of planktivorous fish which locate their prey by sight. The mid-lake monacha forms are larger than specimens of the same form in Ndaiga Lagoon, where it is shown that Alestes baremose feeds selectively on the larger specimens of the monacha form.

The helmeted form produces more, but smaller eggs than the monacha form. The total brood volume (= mean egg volume x mean number eggs per female) is greatest in the midlake monacha forms. The selective advantages of variations in egg size and the possession of a helmet are discussed. It is concluded that the data from Lake Albert support the hypothesis of Brooks (1965) concerning the adaptive significance of helmet development in Daphnia.