Anatomy of the veins of the head in the domestic fowl



The anatomy of the cephalic venous system in the fowl was studied in 19 specimens by means of latex-injected preparations and by dissection. The brain sinuses converge dorsally upon the large cervical sinus and vertebral veins. Dorso-ventral communication is provided by the occipital veins posteriorly, while the ophthalmic system unites both dorsal and ventral sinuses and the temporal rete with the extracranial veins anteriorly. The jugular veins are formed from the superficial branches of the facial veins and serve mainly as outlets for extracranial blood. They are united at the base of the head by a prominent transverse anastomosis which slopes caudally towards the larger, right jugular. As in mammals, the carotid veins envelop the internal carotid arteries and anteriorly form a bulbous sinus cavernosus around the inter-carotid anastomosis.