The female systems of Eudrilid earthworms in which internal fertilization seems probable are reviewed and the advantage conferred on the earthworms with these specializations is discussed. A new genus and species of Pareudrilinae is described from Ghana. The genus is characterized mainly by the presence of two unpaired, mid-dorsal oesophageal glands, one in segment vii and the other in segment viii. In addition, the posterior region of the oesophagus is dilated and specialized in segments xiii–xv. A hitherto undescribed system of afferent and efferent ducts is reported joining the receptaculum seminis with the spermathecal atrium and with the oviduct and its function is examined.