Observations on the behaviour and ecology of Patas monkeys in Cameroon complement those made in Uganda by Hall (1965) and contribute to an understanding of the proximate factors involved in the maintenance of Patas social structure and to seasonal changes in their behaviour and ecology. The heterosexual groups had a mean size of 21. Five all-male groups were seen. High proportions of similarly sized infants indicate that there is a birth season at Waza from November to January inclusive. At the peak of the dry season intergroup contacts were very common at the water holes. The frequency of agonistic encounters increased remarkably at this time, especially between monkeys of different groups. The nature of these encounters indicated that the harem males are effective in driving off extragroup males and that females and juveniles are instrumental in maintaining space and social exclusiveness between heterosexual groups. The frequency of interspecific encounters also increased at the peak of the dry season.