The Mediterranean gobiid genus Chromogobius (Teleostei-Perciformes) is redefined with additional information on lateral-line system and skeleton. The value of meristic features, colouration, squamation, and relative number of cephalic lateral-line papillae is shown for species and subspecies definition. Two species are recognized and described, the mediolittoral Ch. quadrivittatus (Steindachner, 1863) (type species) and the more offshore Ch. zebratus (Kolombatovic, 1891), with the latter being divided into the two subspecies Ch. z. zebratus (from Split, Adriatic Sea) and Ch. z. levanticussubsp. n. (Mediterranean coast of Israel; possibly Tyrrhenian Sea). Osteological confirmation for placing Chromogobius in the Gobiidae is provided, and Chromogobius shown to have affinity with certain South African species (Gobius nudiceps, G. caffer, G. natalensis, G. agulhensis, and Acentrogobius multi-fasciatus), as well as occupying an intermediate position between the Mediterranean Zebrus zebrus and Didogobius bentuvii.