Synopsis. This article has been composed at the request of the Committee of the Nuffield Unit of Tropical Animal Ecology (NUTAE) at its final meeting in Cambridge in October 1971 and has benefited from the comments of the Committee Members and the two successive directors. It is a short record of the history and aims of the Unit and includes only a superficial review of the research done, though a full list of publications is appended. It refers to the ten years ending in 1971 during which it was basically financed by the Nuffield Foundation and after which it was transferred to the Uganda Institute of Ecology. For an account of the previous development of interest in conservation and research on African wildlife see Worthington, E. B. (1961). The wild resources of East and Central Africa. London. H.M.S.O.