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In July 1974 Ranu Lamongan overturned. The resulting deoxygenation of this small tropical crater lake killed some of its fishes. This paper describes the recovery of stratification of temperature and oxygen and follows short-term changes in the plankton during the three weeks after overturn. The lake is fringed with a floating mat of Eichhornia whose submerged roots support and shelter a rich community of invertebrates on which much of the fishery depends. Comparison of our findings with those of the German Sunda Expedition in 1928 show remarkably few changes in the lake or its biota during the 45-year interval, despite a marked increase in the human population and the introduction of four species of fishes.