The systematics and adaptations of some Papuan microhylid frogs which live underground



A taxonomic, anatomical and behavioural account is given of some burrowing microhylid frogs from New Guinea. Six species belonging to four genera are dealt with, of these four are described as new species. Two genera are removed from synonomy to accommodate four of the burrowing species. Histological and anatomical modifications to the head, which are associated with head-first burrowing, are described. The calls of the male frogs are described in detail and attention is drawn to the similarity of calls made by all burrowing species. This is discussed in relation to the problems of sound transmission below ground.