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Ecological studies of five species of lizards were carried out on the island of Praslin, central Seychelles between July and September 1976. Quadrat sampling within four vegetation types revealed distinct habitat preferences between species. Phelsuma sundbergi occurred at highest densities in coastal vegetation, particularly coconuts Cocos nucifera, whilst Phelsuma astriata occurred at highest densities in intermediate forest, particularly in endemic palms such as Lodoicea maldivica. Within each vegetation type, both species preferred particular tree species. In coastal coconuts and Lodoicea in intermediate forest, the two species tended to occur in different sized trees. Calculations of niche breadth indicated greatest values for P. sundbergi in coastal vegetation and for P. astriata in intermediate forest. Both Phelsuma species showed a diurnal pattern of activity with some indication of temporal displacement between species in lowland and intermediate forest. Ailuronyx sechellensis was nocturnal with a relict distribution on Praslin, occurring in the quadrats on only three endemic palm species in intermediate forest. Mabuya sechellensis was by far the commonest and most widespread of the two skink species, with highest density in intermediate forest where it was probably favoured by the high proportion of palm leaf litter. Scelotes gardineri was only recorded in lowland and intermediate forest, where it occurred at low densities. Both species were diurnal, although the latter was never recorded after midday. Intermediate forest had the highest lizard biomass and species diversity whilst eroded land had the lowest. The possible origins and relationships of the two closely related Phelsuma species are discussed, together with the roles that habitat modification, predation, and interspecific competition may play.