Observations were made on a nest of Ropalidia cyathiformis consisting of three combs. The number of eggs, larvae, pupae and adults were monitored at about 3-day intervals for a 2-month period. The behaviour of the adults was observed with special reference to the proportion of time spent on each of the three combs, the proportion of time spent away from the nest site and the frequencies of dominance interactions and egg laying. The adults moved freely between the three combs suggesting that all of them and all the three combs belonged to one nest. However, most of the adults preferred combs 2 and 3 over comb 1. Of the 10 animals chosen for a detailed analysis of behaviour, seven spent varying periods of time away from the nest site and oRen brought back food or building material. Five of the 10 animals laid at least one egg each but two adults monopolized most of the egg-laying. The animals showed a variety of dominance interactions on the basis of which they have been arranged in a dominance hierarchy. The dominant individuals laid most of the eggs and spent little or no time foraging, while the subordinate individuals spent more time foraging and laid few eggs or none. It is argued that R. cyathiformis is different from R. marginata, the only other Indian social wasp whose behaviour has been studied, in being at a more primitive stage of social organization.