The flight mechanism of the pigeon Columbia livia during take-off



High-speed film analysis of the mechanism of take-off of a pigeon ascending nearly vertically reveals the pattern of movements of the wing segments and the bones within them during each of the five phases of the wingbeat cycle. Differences in the type and extent of wing movements between the upstroke and downstroke portions of the first and successive wingbeat cycles are explained with reference to the upward vertical jump made during the first wingbeat cycle. The presence during pigeon take-off of a non-steady state pattern of airfoil action similar to that seen in some insects at the beginning of the downstroke was verified.