Jet propulsion in salps (Tunicata: Thaliacea)



This paper describes the locomotion of salps by jet propulsion, from a combination of measurements of chamber pressures, static thrust, and electromyographic activity, with kinematic records of free-swimming and tethered salps. From such measurements, estimates are made of the thrust exerted, the drag incurred, and the work performed by single salps, and by chains of linked individuals. It is concluded that salp jet propulsion is a more economical process than is jet propulsion in other animals.