Incidence of healed fracture in the skeletons of birds, molluscs and primates



The incidences of healed fracture in the limb bones of birds and the shells of molluscs were estimated by the examination of samples of bones and shells. The results are compared to published data on fracture incidence in molluscs and in primates and other mammals. The relationship between observed incidence of healed fracture, costs of growth and use of the skeleton, and the costs associated with its failure are discussed in terms of a theory of factors of safety.