The incidences of healed fracture in the limb bones of birds and the shells of molluscs were estimated by the examination of samples of bones and shells. The results are compared to published data on fracture incidence in molluscs and in primates and other mammals. The relationship between observed incidence of healed fracture, costs of growth and use of the skeleton, and the costs associated with its failure are discussed in terms of a theory of factors of safety.
If you can't find a tool you're looking for, please click the link at the top of the page to "Go to old article view". Alternatively, view our Knowledge Base articles for additional help. Your feedback is important to us, so please let us know if you have comments or ideas for improvement.