Some principles of ligament function, with examples from the tarsal joints of the sheep (Ovis aries)

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Abstract

The effects of ligaments, in limiting or controlling movement, depend on the positions of their attachments relative to the axes of joints. Such effects are explored in a theoretical section, which considers ligaments that cross a single, congruent hinge joint; ligaments that cross two congruent hinge joints; and non-congruent hinge joints controlled by crossed ligaments. The principles derived in the theoretical section are used to explain the complex mechanism of the sheep tarsal joints.

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