Health of free-living adult cheetahs was assessed using haematological and biochemical measurements of condition. Results showed that cheetahs of both sexes varied on several of these measures, demonstrating that their genetic monomorphism does not result in individuals being of equivalent health. Differences in condition appeared to be somewhat associated with sex, age and whether males were territorial. Compared to two different groups of captive cheetahs, free-living cheetahs were monocytotic, and free-living females were macrocytic. Limited data from captive animals showed they ate more than their free-living counterparts, possibly reflecting the elevated blood glucose levels of captive cheetahs.