Effects of environment on grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) pup mortality. Studies on the Isle of May



Breeding sites, including beach environment and topography, play a significant role in the causes of death of grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) pups, in particular the incidence of starvation, peritonitis/navel ill, other infectious diseases and injuries as a result of adult-pup interactions. The bacteria involved are opportunistic invaders. A wide and differing sex ratio in dead pups was found on different beaches and this has not been satisfactorily explained.