A polyclonal antiserum raised against the molluscan neuromodulatory peptide Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-amide (FMRFamide) reacts with nervous tissue in the free-living nematodes Panagrellus redivius and Caenorhabditis elegans and in infective juveniles (J2) of the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines. Sectioning of the nematodes was unnecessary but penetration of the antibody was improved by cutting the animals or by use of plasma etching to breach the cuticle before incubation in antiserum. Both procedures required subsequent exposure to detergents or partial digestion with protease K for optimum immunoreactivity. A positive reaction was observed for all three nematodes in the longitudinal nerve cords, nerve ring and ventral and lateral ganglia. Neurones were also visualized in association with the vulva in the free-living species and the spicules of male P. redivius. In H. glycines, neurones innervating the pharynx reacted positively, as did two loops of neural tissue on either side of the ventral nerve cord slightly anterior to the anus. Immunoreactivity was also noted in the amphidial pouches of H. glycines after prolonged (15 min) protease treatment. Further work is needed to establish the structure of the peptide antigen localized in these nematodes.