Observations on territoriality and the associated odour-marking and foraging behaviours in male Pachymelus limbarus Saussure, a Malagasy endemic anthophorid bee, are reported. Data indicated a monandrous mating system where virgin females are attracted, probably by pheromonal cues, to male-patrolled territories associated with flowering, nectariferous Plectran- rhussensu lato species (Lamiaceae). One male observed in detail applied odour marks every 30–80 minutes on twigs around a food-resource area that contained c. 850 flowers. This marking behaviour always preceded territory residence. The male spent c. 80% of his time patrolling. Meanwhile, any intruding flying insect was inspected or chased, which caused conspecific males, as well as often females, to leave the site. The resident male fed frequently on flowers within his territory (c. 3,600 flower-visits on fine days), except immediately following odour-marking bouts. His flower-visiting was often released by interactions with intruding insects entering the territory. The observations provide the first example of male territoriality based on resource defence polygyny in the bee family Anthophoridae. The importance of resource distribution in the evolution of male territoriality in bees is discussed.