The influence of egg size and composition on the size, quality and survival of lapwing chicks was examined on two farmland study sites in the Midland Valley of Scotland. Eggs comprised 33.1% yolk, 61.3% albumen and 5.6% shell. Whereas the yolk and shell proportions decreased with increasing egg size, the albumen proportion increased. Most variation in egg size was attributable to differences between females but was also influenced by clutch number (eggs in replacement clutches on the rough grazing, but not the arable, site were smaller), clutch size (eggs were smaller in smaller clutches), maternal body condition (females in good condition produced larger eggs) and habitat (since females on the arable site fed more successfully, they were in better condition and laid larger eggs). Chick size, weight and survival were all influenced by egg size. The incubation period varied between 21 and 28 days (mean = 25.2) and was shorter in clutches laid later in the season.