The dentition of an elephant (fossil or extant) can yield clues to the animal's age species identity, provided the teeth are correctly identified. Identifying the serial category of elephant teeth is difficult because the size, shape and position of each tooth changes throughout life, as the teeth form, erupt, wear and move throught the jaw. In the present study, teeth from over 100 museum specimens of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) were the basis for establishing size ranges for cheek teeth in six serial categories (designated by Roman numerals I to VI). Although the teeth vary greatly and overlap in their dimensions, reliable identifications (as well as estimates of an individual's age in years) can be obtained using three or more measurements. An appreciation for dental variability in Elephas maximus will demand a re-evaluastion of frequently-cited examples of macroevolutionary patterns within the Elephantidae.