The home ranges, space-use patterns, seasonal distribution, long-distance movements, water-related movements and movement patterns of elephants (Loxodonta africana) residing in the northern Namib Desert region of the Kaokoveld, South West Africa/Namibia, are discussed. All movements of the desert-dwelling elephants, including occasional wanderings up to 195 km, were confined to the northern Namib Desert and no evidence could be found of any movements including migrations to and from the Etosha National Park. Home range size varied from 1763 to 2944 km2 and the main feature of the spatial distribution of these elephants is the marked fidelity to individual home ranges. Seasonal distribution and space-use patterns within individual home ranges coincide with seasonal climatic changes and the corresponding changes in food and water availability. The elephant's normal movements and migrations were confined to individual home ranges and no mass population migrations took place. Their mobility and their ability to go up to four days without drinking water enabled them to utilize food sources up to 70 km away from waterholes and, together with their intimate knowledge about resource distribution within their home ranges, are regarded as key factors in their survival in the desert. The elephants' spatial distribution and movement patterns indicate a natural population segregation from other elephant populations in the Kaokoveld, clearly demarcating the desert-dwelling elephants as a distinct population with their own movement patterns and geographic range.