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The structure of the reproductive systems of mature males and females of the nektonic, oceanic squid Thysanoteuthis rhombus are described. The main peculiarities of the female system are relatively low capacity oviducts, set in a tight spiral, and hypertrophically developed oviducal glands with a very large second section. The male reproductive system is characterized by a long, narrow Needham's sac containing 10–15 large spermatophores 80–100 mm in length. The mesentery supporting the gonad, and protruding into it dorsally, is a characteristic feature in both sexes. The hectocotylus structure differs markedly from that in other squids and resembles that of sepiids. The reproductive system of T. rhombus possesses primitive features (pattern of gonad attachment and hectocotylus) but mostly secondary characters (small oviducts, very large oviducal glands and ovary). The complex morpho-ecological adaptations of T. rhombus are reflected in the distinctive features of the reproductive system.