The mutual predatory behaviour between Gammarus pulex (Linnaeus, 1758) and Gammarus duebeni celticus (Stock & Pinkster, 1970) is described. The implications of the predatory nature of these species are discussed in terms of the feeding ecology of Gammarus and other amphipods. Predation rates by males on moulted congeneric females are assessed and compared. When males are present at the moult of a congeneric female, 100%of females are eaten in both species/sex combinations. When females are allowed to recover from moulting prior to presentation to a congeneric male, predation rates are significantly reduced in both species. However, significantly more G. d. celticus females are eaten by G. pulex males compared with the reciprocal situation. The predatory ‘clumping’ behaviour of both species is described and shown to be a form of feeding frenzy upon congenerics. Clumping behaviour also results in significantly higher rates of congeneric predation on G. d. celticus females than on G. pulex females. Support is thus given to the hypothesis that differential predation by males on moulted females may be the primary mechanism by which the introduced G. pulex has displaced the native Irish species G. d. celticus. The implications of amphipod congeneric predation are discussed in terms of observed patterns of interspecific coexistence and exclusion.