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A study spanning two breeding seasons was carried out to examine changes in the size of the dorsal paracloacal glands and testes in the marsupial sugar glider Petaurus breviceps Waterhouse 1839. These changes were related to seasonal increases in the plasma testosterone concentration and to morphological changes in the frontal and gular cutaneous scent glands of males.

Both dorsal paracloacal glands and testes underwent a seasonal cycle of development which reached its maximum during the June-September breeding season. These changes coincided with an increase in the plasma testosterone concentration and with the increase in activity of certain cell types within the frontal and gular glands.

Castration caused a significant decrease in the size of the dorsal paracloacal glands, while androgen replacement was effective in restoring the glands to their pre-castration size thus demonstrating the influence of androgens upon the activity of these glands.

The synchronization which exists between plasma testosterone concentration, cutaneous scent gland morphology and the size of the dorsal paracloacal glands of males, suggests that the dorsal paracloacal glands, or more likely their secretions, are important in social organization in this species.