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A group of 20 pipistrelle bats were taken into captivity and allowed free flight and association within a flight room where they gave birth to and successfully reared 17 young. The flight of the females was recorded during pregnancy, early lactation and post-lactation by using stroboscopic stereophotogrammetry (153 flights reconstructed in total). During the investigation body mass was altering owing to reproductive condition, and changes in mass were recorded daily for all (adult and juvenile) bats during the entire study period, which lasted from two weeks before the last birth until release, when the oldest baby was 43 days old. All bats were individually marked, and detailed morphological measurements were made. Pregnant and post-lactating bats were heavier than lactating bats, which showed the lowest wingbeat frequencies. The flight speeds of pregnant, lactating and post-lactating bats showed no significant differences, and this may be because the pregnant bats appeared to have a wider scope for selecting flight speed than the other two reproductive groups, or than animals studied previously. The group of bats as a whole decreased flight speed (scaling as M-043) and increased wingbeat frequency (scaling as M0.58) as their mass increased. Wingbeat amplitude showed no relation to body mass, wing area or span, flight speed or frequency. A flight performance model applied to the experimental results and optimum flight conditions is used to predict cost of transport and mechanical power for steady flight, and equilibrium wingbeat amplitude which is compared with observations.