The species Trochus kotschyi Philippi, 1849, and Priotrochus obscurus (Wood, 1828) have been much confused in the past. Consistent differences between these taxa in respect of shell morphology, external anatomy and radular and opercular form are demonstrated. The distribution of T. kotschyi and the extent to which it and P. obscurus are sympatric are discussed. T. korschyi is referred to the genus Osilinus Philippi, 1847, a new combination and the first record of the genus from the Indo-West Pacific. The species is thought to be a pre-Miocene relict reflecting a mid-Tethyan origin of the genus. A note on the type species designation ofOsilinus is provided.