Life strategies of Carabus problematicus (Coleoptera, Carabidae) at different altitudes on Snowdon, north Wales



In a study to examine the effect of climate on life cycles, a total of 408 Carabus problematicus were caught in pitfall traps at four altitude sites between 660 m and 1055 m on Snowdon, north Wales. Under the assumption that the mandible condition of these beetles was related to the age of the individuals, an objective estimate, which was both sex- and size-independent, was used to separate the captures into two age categories. The results from this estimation process suggested that beetles from the different altitudes followed different life strategies; low altitude beetles being predominantly annual and high altitude beetles predominantly biennial.