Functional directional asymmetry in fallow deer (Dama dama) antlers



The right antlers of fallow deer are significantly more developed than the left antlers with respect to the lengths of the beam, trez tine and palm, as well as antler weight and number of points. The cross-section at the base is also more elliptical in the right antler. The size difference is correlated with the more intense use of right antlers in fighting, and with the greater breadth of the areas of insertion of the neck muscles in the skull's nuchal region.