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Three species of bats, Pteropus pilosus, P. muriannus pelewensis, and Embullonura semicaudata palauensis, were surveyed by observations, systematic counts, and interviews with local residents in the Palau Islands of Micronesia during a one-month period in 1991. Pteropus pilosus is presumed extinct, with no observations made this century. Pteropus m. pelewensis occurred throughout the archipelago. It is less colonial than other subspecies of P. muriannus, with most of the population appearing to roost solitarily or in small groups of a few bats. Colonies were uncommon and typically ranged in size from about 30–200 animals. Evidence of two larger roosting concentrations, one of which may have held as many as 3,000 bats, was also found. These fruit bats forage and roost in a variety of forested habitats and have diverse diets known to contain the fruits of 54 species, the flowers of 28 species, and the leaves of one species. At dusk, most bats began foraging within several kilometres of their day roosts, but some flew at least 12 km to reach feeding sites. The largest numbers of P. m. pelewensis roosted on rugged and fairly inaccessible limestone islands near the centre of the archipelago, near where most people also lived. We were unable to estimate population size or determine population trend in the island chain. The bats are heavily harvested for commercial export, with more than 180,000 animals shipped to the Mariana Islands from 1975–1994. Smaller numbers are also killed as a local food source. Emballonura s. palauensis, the only insectivorous bat in the islands, was seen at 65% of the evening count locations and was also widespread in the archipelago. Recommendations for managing bats in Palau include a prohibition on the export of fruit bats and the establishment of several protected areas.