Scent-marking behaviour of golden-faced saki monkey, Pithecia pithecia chrysocephala, was observed intermittently between 1987 and 1990 for a family group in a Central Amazonian forest fragment. Of 95 scent-marking events (during 275.5 hours of observation), throat-and-chest rubbing accounted for all except one anogenital rubbing. Nine of the throat-and-chest markings also involved touching groin with hands and eight markings (including the anogenital), urinating on the marked branch. Marking behaviour is strongly sex related, with the adult male making 88.4% of the markings. Scent-marking frequency by the adult male increased during breeding periods. Scent-marking behaviour seems related to courtship, and possibly stimulates sexual behaviour. All regularly marked spots consisted of horizontal branches on commonly travelled routes. Eleven occurred in feeding trees and lianas, but none in sleeping trees. Scent-marking behaviour in the monkeys studied here was not related to intergroup encounters and probably did not have a territorial function, although it may do so where different groups interact.